Infertility can also refer to the biological inability of an individual to contribute to conception, or to a female who cannot carry a pregnancy to full term. It can also be refer to a couple that has failed to conceive after 12 months of regular sexual intercourse without the use of contraception. There are many possible causes of infertility but sometimes the exact cause is never identified.
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Causes of infertility in women
* Ovulation disorders- this is the most common cause of infertility in women. Ovulation is the monthly release of an egg. In some cases the woman never releases eggs, while in others the woman does not release eggs during come cycles. Ovulation disorders can be due to:
* Premature ovarian failure- this happen when a woman's ovaries stop working before she is 40.
* PCOS(polycystic ovary syndrome) - abnormal functioning of the woman's ovaries. She also has abnormally high levels of androgen.
* Hyperprolactinemia- when prolactin levels are high and is not pregnant or breastfeeding, it may affect ovulation and fertility.
* Poor egg quality- when a woman's eggs are damaged from genetic abnormalities pregnancy cannot be achieved. Older women are usually higher of risk.
* Overactive thyroid gland
* Under active thyroid gland
* Some chronic conditions, such as AIDS or cancer.
* Problems in the uterus or fallopian tubes
The ovary get the egg to the uterus(womb) where it get fertilized. If there damage or problem in the uterus or the fallopian tubes the woman may not be able to conceive through natural process.
Problems with the uterus can result from:
* Surgery- pelvic surgery can sometimes cause scarring or damage to the fallopian tubes. Cervical surgery can sometimes cause scarring or shortening of the cervix. The cervix is the neck of the uterus.
* Submucosal fibroids- benign or non-cancerous tumors found in the muscular wall of the uterus, occurring in 30% to 40% of women of childbearing age. They may interfere with implantation. They can also block the fallopian tube, preventing sperm from fertilizing the egg.
* Endometriosis- cells that are normally found within the lining of the uterus start growing elsewhere in the body.
* Previous sterilization treatment- if a woman chose to have her fallopian tubes blocked. It is possible to reverse this process, but the chances of becoming fertile again are not high. However, an eight-year study showed tubal reversal surgery results in higher pregnancy and live birth rates and is less costly than IVF.
* Medications- some drugs can affect the fertility of a woman. These include:
* NSAIDs( non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) - women who take aspirin or ibuprofen long-term may find it harder to conceive.
* Chemotherapy- some medications used in chemotherapycan result in ovarian failure. In some cases, this side effect of chemotherapy may be permanent.
* Radiotherapy- if radiation therapy was aimed near the woman's reproductive organs there is a higher risk of fertility problems.
* Illegal drugs- some women who take marijuana or cocaine may have fertility problems.
Others factors includes
* Diet and Exercise